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What Is Technology Assisted Review?

What Is Technology Assisted Review
Four tips for successful use of Technology Assisted Review (TAR) – To successfully apply Technology Assisted Review to your workflow, be sure to follow the following guidelines:

Continuously monitor and re-train the system

TAR implies an iterative process, requiring legal teams to take their time to consistently tweak and tune the machine-reviewed documents to teach algorithms to identify relevant documents more efficiently.

Involve senior lawyers in reviewing smaller training sets

To ensure the high quality of the reviewed documents, subject matter experts should be involved to ensure the consistency of the approach and “guide” the algorithm in providing quality results by reviewing and verifying a random set of documents coded for relevance by less experienced reviewers.

Be ready for possible blind spots, as TAR is not perfect

While TAR provides great benefits, it clearly has its blind spots. Therefore, it is important to keep your eyes open on which documents to define relevance for, as many times relevance is driven by context, not only content. For instance, sometimes, documents might be relevant for a case because they don’t contain certain content.

Consider using ‘example documents’ to guide your algorithm

To ease and facilitate the training of your algorithm, consider identifying ‘example documents’ and allowing the algorithm to capture similar content in order to test the system. This way, such ‘dummy’ documents can be used as springboards for similarity, email threading, and clustering tools.

What is the meaning of technology assisted review?

Glossary definition – Technology-assisted review (TAR), also known as computer-assisted review (CAR), uses artificial intelligence to identify and tag potentially discoverable documents, focusing and expediting the human review process. What Is Technology Assisted Review

What is the difference between technology assisted review tar and predictive coding?

What Is Predictive Coding? Predictive Coding Vs. Technology-Assisted Review – To avoid confusion, it is important to note that not all technology-assisted review, or TAR (Technology Assisted Review), involves predictive coding, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.

What are tar tools?

About Technology-Assisted Review – TAR, also known as computer-assisted review (CAR), is a tool to handle the review phase of eDiscovery using algorithms that can identify interesting documents. This dramatically improves the speed of reviewing discovery without sacrificing accuracy or thoroughness.

  • There are many different approaches to TAR, but it’s generally used to monitor documents in tandem with a human reviewer.
  • Using natural language processing, a type of artificial intelligence, the system identifies words and phrases that may be important and tags them.
  • The tags are usually based on privilege, relevance, and other details.

The best part of this tool is that it learns throughout the process, so it can identify and highlight documents that may be important and prioritize them. TAR has been accepted by US courts since.

What is the difference between tar 1 and tar 2?

So which is better? – Whether you are using TAR 1.0 or TAR 2.0 protocols, the goal for both is the same: increase accuracy and greatly reduce review time and the number of humans needed to review documents for discovery. Both kinds of TAR improve workflows, but neither protocol necessarily provides better information to develop legal arguments or strategies.

The primary advantage of TAR 2.0 is that it gives the end-user more control over the process and the ability to run multiple sessions at once. For most organizations, this makes it the obvious choice. This white paper goes in-depth about the role of artificial intelligence in eDiscovery, including technology-assisted review.

Learn More About Casepoint’s AI & Advanced Analytics 1 Altman Weil, 2017 Chief Legal Officer Survey

What are examples of technology assisted instruction?

CAI is also known as computer-assisted instruction. Examples of CAI applications include guided drill and practice exercises, computer visualization of complex objects, and computer-facilitated communication between students and teachers.

Why is a technology review important?

Implement technologies that fit – Considering that new technologies are released at a breakneck pace, it’s important to pick those that will help you achieve your business goals. Technology business reviews keep you up to date on the latest technology trends and gauge the impact of implementing them so that you can make informed decisions.

What is the difference between predictive modeling and AI?

Artificial intelligence vs predictive analytics – The most glaring difference between AI and predictive analytics is that AI can be autonomous and learn on its own. On the other hand, predictive analytics often relies on human interaction to help query data, identify trends, and test assumptions, though it can also use ML in certain circumstances.

What is the difference between predictive coding and predictive processing?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In neuroscience, predictive coding (also known as predictive processing ) is a theory of brain function which postulates that the brain is constantly generating and updating a ” mental model ” of the environment.

  • According to the theory, such a mental model is used to predict input signals from the senses that are then compared with the actual input signals from those senses.
  • With the rising popularity of representation learning, the theory is being actively pursued and applied in machine learning and related fields.

The phrase ‘predictive coding’ is also used in several other disciplines such as signal-processing technologies and law in loosely-related or unrelated senses.

What is TAR framework?

TARexp: A Python Framework for Technology-Assisted Review Experiments Abstract: Technology-assisted review (TAR) is an important industrial application of information retrieval (IR) and machine learning (ML). While a small TAR research community exists, the complexity of TAR software and workflows is a major barrier to entry.

  1. Drawing on past open source TAR efforts, as well as design patterns from the IR and ML open source software, we present an open source Python framework for conducting experiments on TAR algorithms.
  2. Ey characteristics of this framework are declarative representations of workflows and experiment plans, the ability for components to play variable numbers of workflow roles, and state maintenance and restart capabilities.

Users can draw on reference implementations of standard TAR algorithms while incorporating novel components to explore their research interests. The framework is available at, From: Eugene Yang Wed, 23 Feb 2022 23:42:57 UTC (170 KB) Sun, 24 Apr 2022 19:37:33 UTC (564 KB) : TARexp: A Python Framework for Technology-Assisted Review Experiments

Is tar still used today?

Plant sources, techniques of production and uses of tar: A review , 1 March 2022, 114889 Throughout history, Humans have always used tar for different purposes such as gluing materials, waterproofing, and conserving wood, but today, it is also used in medicines and cosmetics. Many countries around the world, Norway and Morocco to name a few, obtain tar from endemic trees.

In a process of dry distillation, the organic material, endemic trees in this case, is exposed to a high temperature with a restricted amount of oxygen. Eventually, it cracks the large molecules in the matter and turns it into tar. This review article sheds light on tar production and the species that have been used in the process.

Equal emphasis is placed on its uses, chemical composition, and toxicity. Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines have been used to review this article. The review is put together from various articles, theses, documents in “Science Direct”, “Hal (Archive ouvert)”, “Web of knowledge” without limitation date.

It turns out that tar can be produced by 18 tree taxonomic families, notably,, and, As for the production techniques, two methods are considered: Per ascensum and Per descensum, which can take different forms. The chemical composition of tar consists of acids, phenols, and, The uses of tar have changed over time, while its toxicity is strongly related to its chemical composition.

The different species used in tar production have been highlighted in this research review. Equal importance has been given to its methods of extraction, uses and its chemical components. We hope that future studies will focus more on these species used to produce tar in other,

Tar is a dark or brown viscous liquid obtained from vegetable material by pyrolysis (Egenberg et al., 2003; Julin, 2008; Turkustani et al., 2019; Urem-Kotsou et al., 2002), in pharmacopoeia, it is called pyroleum. The production of tar is still taking part in some places like Morocco (Burri et al., 2017; Julin, 2008), Turkey (Ari et al., 2014; Burri et al., 2018; Sargin, 2020) and in the Nordic countries (Fond and Källbom, 2015).

Generally, the production of tar is from different types of combustibles. Most tar-related studies suggest that tar production uses vegetable sources from conifer, coniferous trees are preferentially used as starting materials (Achour et al., 2011; Ahmed et al., 2020; El Jemli, 2020; Gast, 1999) The use of tar has evolved for the protection of waterproofing (Bailly, 2015; Burri et al., 2017; Delgado Robles et al., 2017; Turkustani et al., 2019) decoration (Delgado Robles et al., 2017; Lindborg, 2009), and adhesion of objects (Bellakhdar, 1997a; Rageot et al., 2019) Moreover, tar is useable in both human and veterinary medicines (Achour et al., 2011; Hoummani et al., 2019; Sargin, 2020; Takci et al., 2020), It has been widely used for the treatment of dermal diseases (Bandaiphet and Kennedy, 2004).

Thus, most scientific researches have focused on essential oils extracted from plants, and few studies have covered the traditional tar and its sources (Burri et al., 2017). The vast majority of studies found in the literature about tar were ethno-historical and ethno-pharmacology (Bellakhdar, 1997b; Burri et al., 2017; Connan et al., 2002).

This article provides a systematic review of tar research. By studying the origins of plant materials which would be used to produce tar, this article emphasizes the methods, technologies, and basics used for plant tar extraction mentioned in the literature and it presents an inventory of the different medicinal methods made by populations according to authors.

  1. Moreover, it highlights the characterization of plants tars’s chemical composition by the various species of forest trees as well as identifies the benefits of the biological activities of tars to finally discuss its potential toxicity.
  2. In every field, literature reviews have served as a vital tool to assess knowledge.

This article provides a systematic review about tars plants origin published in the scientific database by considering the PRISMA items ( P referred R eporting I tems F or S ystematic R eviews and M eta- A nalyses). The items related to bias risk and the combination results of meta-analysis studies were omitted from the checklist due to their irrelevancy.

It is expected that this study would provide researchers with an The most widely used species to produce tar are Juniper (Burri et al., 2017; Delgado Robles et al., 2017; El Jemli, 2020; Johnson, 2001) followed by Thuja (El Jemli, 2020; Zahir et al., 2020), Cedar (Jaouadi et al., 2020; Takci et al., 2020) and Pin (Belliot, 2007; Mazela, 2007) Alongside these species, tar production can be possible using alternative species (Julin, 2008).

In France, during 1944, Stephan-Chauvet inquired about the possibility of obtaining tar from species other than Birch (” Tar has played a significant role in humans’ life. In the past, it was one important product in trade, and as time went by, its uses marked different fields.

Unfortunately, knowledge about tar had faded in some regions like in the Nordic countries for some time, but several projects that were launched in the area brought it back to life. This is what made researchers in different fields around the world study the history of tar, its traditional and modern uses, biochemical composition, This work was supported by the National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic plants, Taounate (ANPMA), École Supérieure de Technologie – Salé (EST), National Center for Scientific and Technical Research (CNRST) Morocco ; and, Forest Research Center – Rabat ( CRF ).

Oumaima Ninich: Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization, Conceptualization, Supervision. Aziz Et-Tahir: Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Conceptualization, Project lead. Kamal Kettani: Supervision. Mohamed Ghanmi: Supervision.

C. Amen-Chen et al. L. Brusetti et al. I.M. Egenberg et al. V. Hammiche et al. H. Hoummani et al. B. Mazela A. Oulmaati et al. K.V. Paghdal et al. A. Pieroni et al. B. Schoket et al.

S. Skalli et al. J. Tintner et al. S. Achour et al. M. Ahmed et al. A. Aiboud A. Al-Asmari et al. E.A. Alqahtani et al. S. Ari et al. R. Aufan L. Bailly E. Baker et al. C. Bandaiphet et al. T.M. Barnes et al. J. Bellakhdar J. Bellakhdar K. Bellamine A. Belliot K. Bendjima et al.

L. Benlarbi et al. F. Bouvry T. Bouziane et al. S. Burri et al. Burri, S., n.d. The extraction of wood tar in Europe; learned knowledge and empirical practices from Antiquity to the. S. Burri et al. S. Burri et al. F. Carazza et al. W. Ciesla J. Connan et al. I. Degano et al. A.A. Delgado Robles et al. A. El abid M. El Jemli I.F.S.

Ezzaki et al. FAO P. Faure et al. G. Fond et al. M. Gast L.A.H.A. Gevers et al. N.M. Gumgumjee N.M. Gumgumjee et al.

In this study, mesoporous activated carbon (AC) was synthesized by thermochemical activation of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EUO) wood tar by using KOH as the activator. The pore structure, surface characteristics, graphitization degree and electrochemical properties of ACs synthesized by one-step and two-step activation were systematically investigated. The results showed that the two-step activation could effectively improve the relevant properties of AC as compared to those from the one-step activation. The maximum specific surface area (SSA) and pore volume of AR3–1 (1:3 mass ratio of EUO wood tar to activator at one-step activation process) could be increased than AR3–2 (1:3 mass ratio of carbonized product to activator at two-step activation process) by 26.08% and 20.27%, respectively. Additionally, the mesoporous ratio of AR3–2 can reach 71%, indicating a well-developed mesoporous structure. Meanwhile, the highest SSA of AR5–2 (1:5 mass ratio of carbonized product to activator at two-step activation process) synthesized by two-step activation can rise to 3354.8 m 2 /g, and the pore volume can reach 1.78 m 3 /g. Besides, the specific capacitance of AR3–2 reached 510.54 F/g at a current density of 0.2 A/g in 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte in the three-electrode system, possessing better electrochemical stability. Overall, as a precursor of mesoporous activated carbon, the AC synthesized from EUO wood tar exhibits excellent structural and electrochemical performance. This study has a guiding significance for the synthesis of high-performance mesoporous carbon from biomass tar. This research focused on the reaction features and kinetics of tar catalytic conversion by char based on the generation and evolution of gas products. To probe the roles of heat and catalysis in tar conversion, a micro fluidized bed reaction analyzer (MFBRA) was used to assess tar thermal cracking (TC) and catalytic cracking (CC) by char at 1073, 1123, 1173, and 1223 K. The tar cracking behavior of the individual gas components (H 2, CO, CO 2, and CH 4 ), generation rates, and reaction kinetics were thoroughly investigated. The results show that TC and CC included a fast (Stage-1) and slow (Stage-2) conversion stage, in which Stage-1 contributed more than 80% of the total conversion. Compared to TC, tar CC required a longer reaction time but obtained higher conversions to individual gas components and the total gas products. The final conversion ratios ( X CC/TC ) of H 2, CO, CO 2, and CH 4 were kept above 1 at the tested temperature. The char catalytic action was very remarkable, especially at low temperatures. In tar CC, the generation rate of individual gas components slowly declined after quickly reaching the peak, forming a relatively stable zone. The volume reaction model (VRM) well described the tar conversion behavior with and without char. Compared to TC, char lowered the activation energy ( Ea ) of gas generation. For individual gas components (H 2, CO, CO 2, CH 4 ) and the total gas products, the corresponding reduction degree of Ea was 25.56%, 24.18%, 22.14%, 4.75%, and 21.71%, respectively, further displaying the promoting impact of char. The evaluated generation features and kinetics of individual components in the gas products will benefit the in-situ tar removal in the biomass gasification process. In this study, a micro fluidized bed reaction analyzer (MFBRA) was used to investigate the reaction characteristics of tar thermal cracking and steam reforming at different temperatures (T, 750, 850, and 950 °C) and steam partial pressures (SP, 10%, 20%, and 30%). The reaction kinetics, including gas components generation (H 2, CO, CO 2, and CH 4 ) and carbon (C) conversion in gas products, were calculated and further compared. For the two processes, the behaviors of gas generation and C conversion can be classified as Stage-1 and Stage-2 based on the different increases. By raising temperature and SP, the yields of H 2 /CO/CH 4 and C conversion increased obviously, while CO 2 showed a growing and subsequently declining trend. A similar phenomenon also existed in the relationship between reaction rate Vs. gas yield/C conversion. Compared to thermal cracking, the reaction time in tar steam reforming became much longer; the yields of H 2 /CO/CH 4 and the C conversion increased significantly, while CO 2 decreased. In the meantime, there was a clear reduction in all reaction rates of gas generation and C conversion. Furthermore, in tar steam reforming, the activated energy ( Ea ) of gas components generation (H 2, CO, CO 2, and CH 4 ) decreased from 114.92 to 90.48, 86.54–74.49, 32.39–28.87, and 55.34–42.06 kJ/mol, respectively; and Ea of total C conversion lowered from 87.74 to 65.75 kJ/mol. Additionally, SP had no impact on Ea during tar steam reforming. To ensure the validity of the test results by MFBRA, the kinetics of tar thermal cracking was compared with that in the literature. Wood tar has been regarded as the most undesirable by-product of biomass carbonization. Fractional distillation of the wood tar at the full temperature range from the initial evaporating point to the coking point (110∼300 °C), was investigated. Characterization of the six typical distillates in the wood tar in terms of moisture content, elemental and chemical compositions was precisely analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the distillation process in separating the components. A life cycle assessment based on biomass converting to wood tar and further into distilled-oils was constructed to estimate the CO 2 emission. Results showed high yields (∼15.4 wt%) of the heavy distillates (b.p.250∼300 °C) and a significant reduction in water content (∼4.5 %) while high heating value (∼30 MJ/kg). The majority of the compounds presented in each fraction is phenolic, aromatic and oxygenated compounds especially phenols and their alkyl and methoxy derivatives. Phenolic compounds perform various distillation properties due to different functional groups and the hydrogen-bond interaction. LCA indicated that the distillation exerted advantages in reducing carbon emission and that it has a potential for future development of these processes for commercial and industrial use. Developing low-cost and high-performance catalysts is an important part of the development of biomass pyrolysis technologies. In this study, the coal gangue rich in metals was used to directly prepare a char-supported catalyst, and metals in coal gangue were hoped to act as catalytic sites for in-situ biomass catalytic pyrolysis and secondary tar cracking. The influence of coal gangue char on pine pyrolysis behavior and kinetics was investigated in the thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed bed reactor. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of coal gangue char caused the movement of the initial weight loss temperature and the maximum weight loss peak of the samples to the high-temperature region. With the increase of the coal gangue char mass ratio, lower apparent activation energies of the samples were achieved in the conversion range of 0.2–0.8. Through fixed-bed isothermal pyrolysis experiments, it was found that the yield of gas increased with the increase of the coal gangue char mass ratio, while the tar yield decreased quickly. The yield of H 2 and CO was significantly improved by the coal gangue char, further confirming the catalytic performance of coal gangue char on the cracking of tar molecules. In this research, the non-isothermal and isothermal reaction behavior of tar catalytic conversion by char was tested by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a micro fluidized bed reaction analyzer (MFBRA), respectively. The TGA analysis shows that the obvious catalytic action can be found at a temperature above 873 K. In the MFBRA measurement, the roles of heat and catalysis during tar catalytic conversion from char were examined by comparing tar thermal and catalytic cracking. The results show that, regardless of tar thermal and catalytic cracking, the isothermal reaction behavior can be divided into the primary reaction stage (S1) and the secondary reaction stage (S2). In S1, the reaction behaviors in terms of reaction time, tar conversion, and gas yields, were very similar, indicating the dominant role of heat. In S2, the process of tar catalytic conversion needed a longer reaction time with higher tar conversion and more gas product emission, manifesting the significant role of catalytic action. In the examined temperature range of 1023–1223 K, the temperature effect on gas components during tar catalytic cracking by char included promotion (CO, CH 4, H 2, and CO 2 ), suppression (C 2 H 6, C 3 H 6, and C 3 H 8 ), and competition between them (C 2 H 4 ). For the reaction kinetics, the activation energy of each gas component generation and the total gas product in S2 was much higher than that in S1. This was much related to the catalytic conversion of hard-to-crack components in the tar sample. The findings were beneficial to understanding tar catalytic reaction by char deeply and providing data support for the design and optimization of the tar removal unit in a gasification process.

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Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae (CJM) is the dry branch or stem bark of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. and is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine in Asia and Africa. Its use was first recorded in Kaibao Bencao. The present review provides a deeper insight, better awareness and detailed knowledge of phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, along with clinical applications of Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae. The relevant information of Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae was obtained from several databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. The medical books, PhD and MSc dissertations in Chinese were also used to perform this work. CJM has been traditionally used against a wide range of diseases, including dysentery, acute conjunctivitis, bacterial infections, and cancer. A total of 249 compounds have been isolated from CJM; they mainly include quinones and their derivatives, flavonoids, tannins, diarylheptanoids, triterpenoids, coumarins, phenylpropanoids, and volatile oils. These compounds exert anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic, anti-complement, immunomodulatory, anti-parasitic activities. Specifically, the effects of juglone, alkaloids and unsaturated fatty acid CJM components against hepatic cancer occur through exertion of apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition, taxifolin and several tannins have been found to have anti-HIV activity, and (±)-juglanaloid A and (±)-juglanaloid B target Alzheimer disease. Quality control is monitored through identification of juglone, quercetin, and volatile oils. A clinical preparation of CJM, Compound Muji Granules, is used in the treatment of various liver diseases with good therapeutic effect. While CJM has been used extensively as a folk medicine, the relationships between structure and activity remain unclear. More in vivo models are needed to study the pharmacological mechanisms of action and to assess potential toxic components, in addition to which the evidence used to demonstrate the quality standards of medicinal materials is clearly inadequate. Therefore, more in-depth research is needed to provide a reasonable scientific basis improve its clinical utilization. Neuroprotective Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in alternative medicine from early days. TCM-derived neuroprotective compounds, such as Chrysin, Cannabidiol, Toonasinoids, and β-asaron, exert significant effectiveness’s towards Parkinson’s disease (PD). Further, these neuroprotective TCM showed antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-septic, analgesic properties. Recent research showed that the reduction in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased the α-synuclein (α-syn) toxicity and enhanced the dopaminergic neuron regenerations, the main hallmarks of PD. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of novel TCM due to its antiradical activities needed deep investigations. This review aims to enlighten the neuroprotective TCM and its components with their antioxidative properties to the scientific community for future research. The relevant information on the neuroprotective TCM was gathered from scientific databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications, and CNKI). Information was also gained from MS and Ph.D. thesis, books, and online databases. The literature cited in this review dates from 2001 to June 2, 0201. Novel therapies for PD are accessible, mostly rely on Rivastigmine and Donepezil, offers to slow down the progression of disease at an early stage but embraces lots of disadvantages. Researchers are trying to find a potential drug against PD, which is proficient at preventing or curing the disease progress, but still needed to be further identified. Oxidative insult and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be the main culprit of neurodegenerations. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the only causative agent in all interactions, leading to PD, from mitochondrial dysfunctions, α-syn aggregative toxicity, and DA neurons degenerations. It is evident from the redox balance, which seems an imperative therapeutic approach against PD and was necessary for the significant neuronal activities. Our study is explaining the newly discovered TCM and their neuroprotective and antioxidative properties. But also bring up the possible treatment approaches against PD for future researchers. Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine with a long history and is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active ingredients in Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen, and its injection is used to treat nerve damage caused by cerebral ischemia and other conditions. PNS is thought to alleviate cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. We elucidated the role of PNS in attenuating cellular mitochondrial damage caused by amyloid β (Aβ) protein and in protecting cell viability from the perspective of regulating autophagy. By investigating the effects of PNS on the targets regulating mitophagy, we wanted to reveal the autophagy related mechanism by which PNS attenuated Aβ damage in neuronal cells. The effect of PNS on the mitochondrial membrane potential of Aβ-injured PC12 cells was detected using flow cytometry, which reflected the alleviating effect of PNS on mitochondrial damage. Using mRFP-GFP-LC3-transfected PC12 cells, the effect of PNS on cellular autophagy flux was observed using laser confocal microscopy. Formation of the intracellular autophagosome was observed using transmission electron microscopy, which reflected the activation of autophagy by PNS. The siPINK1 lentivirus was used to silence the PINK1 gene in PC12 cells to obtain siPINK1-PC12 cells. The effects of PNS on the expression of the PINK1 gene and on the autophagy-related proteins LC3II/Ⅰ, p62, PINK1, parkin, NDP52, and OPTN were observed to reveal the possible targets of PNS in regulating autophagy. After PNS treatment, the viability of Aβ-injured PC12 cells improved and the mitochondrial membrane potential was restored. PNS treatment significantly enhanced the autophagy flux of damaged cells and increased the levels of LC3II/Ⅰ protein and decreased p62 protein, while significantly improving the structure and mitochondrial morphology of PC12 cells injured by Aβ. These changes led to more autophagosomes wrapping around the damaged mitochondria and promoting the depletion of OPTN, a mitophagy receptor. After silencing the PINK1 gene, PNS could not alter the PINK1 gene and protein levels, but could still increase LC3II/Ⅰ, decrease p62 and OPTN, and significantly increase the amount of parkin. PNS could enhance the autophagic activity of cells, alleviate mitochondrial damage caused by Aβ injury, and protect the activity of PC12 cells. It is possible that enhanced autophagy was achieved by promoting the recruitment of parkin protein to the mitochondrial receptors in a non-PINK1-dependent manner. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with unknown etiology. Oxytropis falcata Bunge ( O. falcata ) is a 1–35 cm high perennial clustered herb, also known as edaxia, has viscosity and a special smell, and is mainly distributed in the western areas of China. The root of O. falcata has a diameter of 6 mm, is straight and deep, dark red and its stems are shortened, woody and multibranched.O. falcata has heat-clearing, detoxification, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hemostatic and antitumor activities. Furthermore, O. falcata has excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, and it is one of the three major anti-inflammatory drugs in Tibetan medicine, known as “the king of herbs”. Total flavonoids of Oxytropis falcata Bunge (FOFB) were previously extracted, and their pharmacological activities are consistent with those of the whole herb. In this study, FOFB was extracted from O. falcata by ethanol extraction, and the mechanism of FOFB on IPF was verified by in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this study, we aimed to observe the effects of FOFB on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In in vivo experiments, an IPF rat model was established by bleomycin induction. The rats were treated with FOFB (100, 200, 400 mg kg −1 ·d −1 ) for 4 weeks. Masson staining and the expression of TGF-β, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and Smad7 in the lung tissue of rats were detected. In in vitro experiments, we perfused normal rats with FOFB (100, 200, 400 mg kg −1 ·d −1 ) and obtained the corresponding drug-containing serum. The HFL-1 cell model induced by TGF-β1 was used to detect the corresponding indices through intervention with drug-containing serum. The best intervention time for drug-containing serum was detected by the CCK-8 method. Changes in apoptosis, cytoskeleton and rough endoplasmic reticulum structure were detected. Finally, the expression of TGF-β, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and Smad7 in cells was examined. In vivo, Masson staining indicated that the degree of pulmonary fibrosis increased significantly, the expression of TGF-β, p-smad2 and p-Smad3 increased significantly, and the expression of Smad7 decreased in the model group. We found that the degree of pulmonary fibrosis gradually decreased and that the inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway became more obvious with increasing FOFB dose. FOFB (400 mg kg −1 ·d −1 ) significantly improved the degree of pulmonary fibrosis in rats. In in vitro experiments, the CCK-8 results showed that 120 h was the best intervention time for drug-containing serum. In the model group, there was no obvious apoptosis or changes in microfilaments and microtubules, the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum increased, and the expression of TGF-β, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 increased significantly, while the expression of Smad7 decreased significantly. We found that with the increase in drug-containing serum concentration, the apoptosis, cytoskeleton and degree of destruction of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the HFL-1 cell model also increased, and the inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway became more pronounced; the effect of the drug-containing serum administered with FOFB (400 mg kg −1 ·d −1 ) was the most significant. The results suggest that FOFB can improve the occurrence and development of IPF. The effect of FOFB on IPF may be mediated by inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Keguan-1, a new traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription contained seven Chinese herbs, is developed to treat coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The first internationally registered COVID-19 randomised clinical trial on integrated therapy demonstrated that Keguan-1 significantly reduced the incidence of ARDS and inhibited the severe progression of COVID-19. To investigate the protective mechanism of Keguan-1 on ARDS, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was used to simulate the pathological state of ARDS in patients with COVID-19, focusing on its effect and mechanism on ALI. Mice were challenged with LPS (2 mg/kg) by intratracheal instillation (i.t.) and were orally administered Keguan-1 (low dose, 1.25 g/kg; medium dose, 2.5 g/kg; high dose, 5 g/kg) after 2 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF) and lung tissue were collected 6 h and 24 h after i.t. administration of LPS. The levels of inflammatory factors tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC or mCXCL1), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2 or mCXCL2), angiotensin II (Ang II), and endothelial cell junction-associated proteins were analysed using ELISA or western blotting. Keguan-1 improved the survival rate, respiratory condition, and pathological lung injury; decreased the production of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, KC, and MIP2) in BALF and the number of neutrophils in the lung tissues; and ameliorated inflammatory injury in the lung tissues of the mice with LPS-induced ALI. Keguan-1 also reduced the expression of Ang II and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1; increased tight junction proteins (JAM-1 and claudin-5) and VE-cadherin expression; and alleviated pulmonary vascular endothelial injury in LPS-induced ALI. These results demonstrate that Keguan-1 can improve LPS-induced ALI by reducing inflammation and pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, providing scientific support for the clinical treatment of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, it also provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the scientific use of TCMs in emerging infectious diseases. Fuzheng Xiaozheng prescription (FZXZP), a traditional Chinese medicine, which was derived from the famous decoction, Sanjiasan, in the book of “Wenyilun” in Ming dynasty. Due to its function of invigorating the circulation of blood in Chinese medicine, it was usually used for treating the liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), etc. Clinical application found that FZXZP exhibited satisfactory therapeutic effects in HCC treatments. However, we still know little about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we aim to gain a deeper insight into the inhibiting effects of FZXZP on HCC rats and preliminarily elucidate the underlying intervention effects. Two doses of FZXZP were adopted to evaluate the therapeutic effects on rat HCC, and then the intervention effects were evaluated from different aspects. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the active compounds prediction in FZXZP. Finally, the mRNA-Seq was conducted to reveal the intervention mechanisms and the mechanisms were further validated by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and lipid contents analyses. The results showed that FZXZP significantly alleviated the serum biochemical indicators and improved the pathological characteristics of HCC rats. Mechanistically, FZXZP could regulate some lipid related metabolisms, including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and retinol, as well as improving the steroid hormone biosynthesis, to improve the inflammatory statuses and restoring ability of HCC livers, and these were further confirmed by our following analyses on serum lipid contents and cytokine expressions. In addition, FZXZP could also negatively regulate four extracellular growth factors which could result in the blocking of two cancer-related signaling pathways, Ras/MAPK and Ras/PI3K-Akt. Conclusion : Our results suggested that FZXZP demonstrated significant inhibiting effects on rat HCC progresses, and these may be realized by improving the inflammatory statuses and blocking the Ras/MAPK and Ras/PI3K-Akt signaling pathways.

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: Plant sources, techniques of production and uses of tar: A review

Why do people use tar?

What is coal tar? – Coal tar is derived from coal. It is a byproduct of the production of coke, a solid fuel that contains mostly carbon, and coal gas. Coal tar is used primarily for the production of refined chemicals and coal-tar products, such as creosote and coal-tar pitch.

Do people still use tar?

Uses – Tar was used as seal for roofing shingles and tar paper and to seal the hulls of ships and boats. For millennia, wood tar was used to waterproof sails and boats, but today, sails made from inherently waterproof synthetic substances have reduced the demand for tar.

  • Wood tar is still used to seal traditional wooden boats and the roofs of historic, shingle-roofed churches, as well as painting exterior walls of log buildings.
  • Tar is also a general disinfectant.
  • Pine tar oil, or wood tar oil, is used for the surface treatment of wooden shingle roofs, boats, buckets, and tubs and in the medicine, soap, and rubber industries.

Pine tar has good penetration on the rough wood. An old wood tar oil recipe for the treatment of wood is one-third each genuine wood tar, balsam turpentine, and boiled or raw linseed oil or Chinese tung oil. A boat transporting pine tar barrels on Oulu River in 1910. In Finland, wood tar was once considered a panacea reputed to heal “even those cut in twain through their midriff”. A Finnish proverb states that “if sauna, vodka and tar won’t help, the disease is fatal.” Wood tar is used in traditional Finnish medicine because of its microbicidal properties.

  • As a flavoring for candies (e.g., Terva Leijona ) and alcohol (Terva Viina).
  • As a spice for food, like meat.
  • As a scent for saunas, Tar water is mixed into water, which is turned into steam in the sauna.
  • As an anti- dandruff agent in shampoo,
  • As a component of cosmetics.

Mixing tar with linseed oil varnish produces tar paint. Tar paint has a translucent brownish hue and can be used to saturate and tone wood and protect it from weather. Tar paint can also be toned with various pigments, producing translucent colors and preserving the wood texture.

  1. Tar was once used for public humiliation, known as tarring and feathering,
  2. By pouring hot wood tar onto somebody’s bare skin and waiting for it to cool, they would remain stuck in one position.
  3. From there, people would attach feathers to the tar, which would remain stuck on the tarred person for the duration of the punishment.

That person would then become a public example for the rest of the day. A New Method of Macarony Making As Practiced at Boston, Date made: 1830 Maker: Pendleton’s Lithography; Johnston, David Claypoole Place: Boston, Massachusetts Description: Black and white print; outdoor scene of three men standing in front of a gallows with a broken rope hanging from the gallows.

What is tar in coding?

Four tips for successful use of Technology Assisted Review (TAR) – To successfully apply Technology Assisted Review to your workflow, be sure to follow the following guidelines:

Continuously monitor and re-train the system

TAR implies an iterative process, requiring legal teams to take their time to consistently tweak and tune the machine-reviewed documents to teach algorithms to identify relevant documents more efficiently.

Involve senior lawyers in reviewing smaller training sets

To ensure the high quality of the reviewed documents, subject matter experts should be involved to ensure the consistency of the approach and “guide” the algorithm in providing quality results by reviewing and verifying a random set of documents coded for relevance by less experienced reviewers.

Be ready for possible blind spots, as TAR is not perfect

While TAR provides great benefits, it clearly has its blind spots. Therefore, it is important to keep your eyes open on which documents to define relevance for, as many times relevance is driven by context, not only content. For instance, sometimes, documents might be relevant for a case because they don’t contain certain content.

Consider using ‘example documents’ to guide your algorithm

To ease and facilitate the training of your algorithm, consider identifying ‘example documents’ and allowing the algorithm to capture similar content in order to test the system. This way, such ‘dummy’ documents can be used as springboards for similarity, email threading, and clustering tools.

What is ICT assisted learning?

ICT-assisted instruction – ICT-assisted instruction refers to teaching methods or models of instruction delivery that employ ICT in supporting, enhancing and enabling course content delivery. It includes any, all or combinations of the following: radio-, television-,computer- and Internet-assisted instruction. : TVETipedia Glossary

What is low level of technology?

Definition. Any relatively unsophisticated technical equipment or method with an amplitude or functionality below what is available in a similar or comparable system.

Why do you need a review?

Our consumer research and UX team has interviewed over 100 Trustpilot users to understand why consumers write and read reviews as part of ongoing research to improve our efforts and products. In this two-part article, our UX analyst, Siri Shadduck, goes over the results and what the research revealed.

Offer valuable guidance from people who’ve used the service or product Make it easier for shoppers to decide Attest to a company’s reliability Indicate what’s the best and worse that could happen Give consumers insight about product quality Essentially, consumers read reviews because they trust reviews and they believe that reviews will help them make the right decisions when making a purchase or choosing a company.

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But there’s another side to this formula. It’s easy to understand why people read reviews but what’s the motivation behind people that write reviews? That question will give us insight into the reviewer/review-reading dynamic to help us understand the changing environment of consumers – and how creation and consumption of reviews fit within that environment.

To help others make a better buying decision To share an experience To reward a company for good performance

This ranking held true for both men and women internationally. However, when we looked at this question by geography, a different story emerged. For U.S. customers, the primary motivation for 67% of consumers is simply sharing an experience, while in Europe, 65% of consumers are hoping to positively impact others’ buying decisions.

Let’s take a look at some of the highlights from our interviewees. “Reviews are kind of like an on-demand emotional type of thing” – a surveyed shopper. Ever heard the saying, ‘If you can’t say anything nice, don’t say anything at all’? While the sentiment behind this adage may be well intentioned, it doesn’t inform the psychology behind reviews.

Our research shows that consumers are more inclined to write reviews when the experience they’ve had strikes an emotional chord, whether positive or negative. If a consumer has had a very poor experience, they’ll write a review in order to vent frustration and anger, especially if they feel personally mistreated or wronged.

  1. In the same manner, if a consumer has had an exceptionally good experience, they’re likely to applaud the company with a good review to help the company succeed.
  2. This is more frequently the case when the company is small and locally run.
  3. Not only are reviews reflective of a certain emotional tenor, they’re also, in their purest form, a means for consumers to express themselves.

In the words of one reviewer: reviews are “a great way to voice your opinion and let people know about your experiences when dealing with companies and businesses around the country – fabulous!” Essentially, reviews offer consumers a public outlet to voice their opinion.

Reviews provide consumers a chance to tell their side of the story and have it heard by their peers and the businesses being reviewed. Consumers feel empowered as their opinions put bad companies to shame, highlight companies that stand out amongst the crowd, and more broadly contribute to improving businesses everywhere.

Reviews can also serve to feed the ego, by giving reviewers the opportunity to be recognized and acknowledged by their peers. By writing reviews, consumers can dispense their knowledge, show connoisseurship or expertise and thereby improve their standing in the eyes of their fellow shoppers.

There’s a sense of satisfaction that comes from knowing what you’ve written has benefitted others. It’s a powerful feeling. “it’s good that people have read my review. It helps influence their decision if they want to buy with the company or not.” – a surveyed shopper. By extension, review writing can foster a communal ethos, a sense of common stewardship.

For many, reviews are a consumer’s chance to contribute to a good cause, so reviewers feel like they belong to a community of like minded people. Taking part gives people a sense of kinship and integration.It’s nice to know that your opinion has the power to help others, and that together, you’re potentially making the world just a little bit better in your own way.

Venting frustrations if the experience was negative Praising and helping the company if the experience was positive Having a need to express oneself and feel empowered in doing so Wanting to be recognized or acknowledged for having certain knowledge/taste Feeling part of a community and wanting to give back

This coincides with the reasons we found as to why people read reviews. If consumers write reviews with honesty, passion, and a sense of community behind them, then consumers reading reviews also understand that reviews come from a place of honesty and trustworthiness.

Consumers trust reviews because they knew if they left a review, it would be honest and created to better inform future consumers. It’s a self-serving community in the best of ways and it can benefit businesses as well. We know that reviews have many tangible benefits – they help businesses attain Google Seller Ratings, have helped clients improve their conversion rates and bottom lines, but the biggest benefit is that reviews help both consumers and businesses.

Reviews ensure that the best businesses are rewarded by new and repeat consumers and businesses are encouraged to present themselves and their products in the best way possible. Businesses should be taking a customer feedback or review management strategy into consideration but they should also adopt a customer-first business strategy.

If businesses aren’t serving their customers well, their customers will find alternative options. By focusing on how to best serve customers, businesses will be rewarded with good reviews, and as a result, more business. Now that we understand the why and what of reviews, we can better serve our clients and the consumers relying on our reviews.

Find out why people write bad reviews, and how your business can learn from them to grow, improve, and innovate – read our ‘Bad Reviews’ report.

What is the purpose of a review?

Abstract – In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented.

  • Before asking ‘how,’ the question of ‘why’ is more important when starting to write a review.
  • The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research.
  • Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions.

Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described.

A ‘methodological filter’ is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies.

The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way.

Eywords: How to write, review, writing The importance of review articles in health sciences is increasing day by day. Clinicians frequently benefit from review articles to update their knowledge in their field of specialization, and use these articles as a starting point for formulating guidelines. The institutions which provide financial support for further investigations resort to these reviews to reveal the need for these researches.

As is the case with all other researches, the value of a review article is related to what is achieved, what is found, and the way of communicating this information. A few studies have evaluated the quality of review articles. Murlow evaluated 50 review articles published in 1985, and 1986, and revealed that none of them had complied with clear-cut scientific criteria.

In 1996 an international group that analyzed articles, demonstrated the aspects of review articles, and meta-analyses that had not complied with scientific criteria, and elaborated QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses) statement which focused on meta-analyses of randomized controlled studies.

Later on this guideline was updated, and named as PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Review articles are divided into 2 categories as narrative, and systematic reviews. Narrative reviews are written in an easily readable format, and allow consideration of the subject matter within a large spectrum.

  • However in a systematic review, a very detailed, and comprehensive literature surveying is performed on the selected topic.
  • Since it is a result of a more detailed literature surveying with relatively lesser involvement of author’s bias, systematic reviews are considered as gold standard articles.
  • Systematic reviews can be diivded into qualitative, and quantitative reviews.

In both of them detailed literature surveying is performed. However in quantitative reviews, study data are collected, and statistically evaluated (ie. meta-analysis). Before inquring for the method of preparation of a review article, it is more logical to investigate the motivation behind writing the review article in question.

  1. The question(s) to be dealt with
  2. Methods used to find out, and select the best quality researches so as to respond to these questions.
  3. To synthetize available, but quite different researches

For the specification of important questions to be answered, number of literature references to be consulted should be more or less determined. Discussions should be conducted with colleagues in the same area of interest, and time should be reserved for the solution of the problem(s).

  1. Though starting to write the review article promptly seems to be very alluring, the time you spend for the determination of important issues won’t be a waste of time.
  2. The PRISMA statement elaborated to write a well-designed review articles contains a 27-item checklist ( Table 1 ).
  3. It will be reasonable to fulfill the requirements of these items during preparation of a review article or a meta-analysis.

Thus preparation of a comprehensible article with a high-quality scientific content can be feasible.

Why do we need access review?

The ultimate goal of a user access review is to reduce the risk of a security breach by limiting access to critical data and resources.

What is ICT enabled assessment?

ICT in Assessment and Evaluation As we know, the 21st century is complex; education will encourage individuals to develop talents and proficiencies to surmount the crisis they would encounter. Even if we have a balanced curriculum, pitfalls exist. Most classrooms need to adopt and organize teaching-learning sessions integrating technology in this technology era. What Is Technology Assisted Review The constructivist method in teaching-learning processes enables instructors to assess pupils using modern information and communication technologies (ICTs). ICT has been a significant component of classroom activities during the last few decades. Teachers collect information from the internet and other ICT resources for teaching and learning.

Children are also using computers and other electronic devices for self-learning and expanding their knowledge beyond the current curriculum. In this environment, you must be trained and prepared to use ICT to assess student performance. There are several ICT technologies available to assist teachers in assessing student performance.

With the advent of ICT, the nature of teaching, learning, and assessment has changed. Television, computers, iPods, learning management systems (LMS), virtual reality, social networking sites, online education, online digital repositories, and other ICTs are examples.

What is a tech review website?

Technology review platforms enable buyers to write and view technology product reviews for the purpose of improving software buying decisions. These platforms help consumers begin the vendor selection process by providing product rankings aggregated from peer reviews.

What is technology assisted therapy?

Technology Assisted Therapy can be considered any form of therapy that uses technology as a mediating force. This could include things such as videoconferencing or Skype, online support groups, text messaging or other media devices.

What is computer assisted technology?

How does it work? – Assistive Computer Technology (ACT) provides alternatives to the basic ways in which we interact with computers, including typing at the keyboard, seeing the computer screen, and reading the contents on the screen. For students who are blind or have low vision, “seeing the screen” with Assistive Computer Technology (ACT) means:

Software tools which verbalize the text content of the screen, such as JAWS, NVDA, Voiceover, etc. Software tools which magnify the content of the screen, such as ZoomText, Optelec, etc.

The visually impaired person utilizes specialized note taking devices, desktop scanners and enlarged font programs. What are also helpful are the larger monitors and the Optelec for magnification. Braille printers with optical character recognition and speech synthesizers, which translate computer keystrokes into speech, are available for people who are blind.

Optelec offers products that assist people with low vision to read and write again independently. JAWS is a Windows® screen-reader program. ZoomText is a screen magnification software program (see the photograph below).

Julie is very happy to see what ZoomText has to offer. Kathy, an Assistive Technology Training Center helper, is showing Julie the many tools that Zoom renders. Students learn to use such access strategies as speech synthesizers, voice-input systems, alternate keyboards, specialized word processing programs, mouse alternatives, and other assistive hardware and software appropriate to their learning needs.

  1. Specially trained instructors and support staff are available.
  2. Ventura College has implemented campus-wide assistive technology availability for students with disabilities through the Mainstream Computer Program.
  3. Students can come to the to use computers and a number of assistive technologies, such as speech-to-text software that allows students to dictate their words to documents, online assignments and much more.

Angelica can use the BEACH/LRC and access many tools whenever she needs them. : What is Assistive Computer Technology (ACT)?