Beginnings – Google has its origins in “BackRub”, a research project that was begun in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California, The project initially involved an unofficial “third founder”, Scott Hassan, the lead programmer who wrote much of the code for the original Google Search engine, but he left before Google was officially founded as a company; Hassan went on to pursue a career in robotics and founded the company Willow Garage in 2006.
- In the search of a dissertation theme, Page had been considering among other things exploring the mathematical properties of the World Wide Web, understanding its link structure as a huge graph,
- His supervisor, Terry Winograd, encouraged him to pick this idea (which Page later recalled as “the best advice I ever got” ) and Page focused on the problem of finding out which web pages link to a given page, based on the consideration that the number and nature of such backlinks was valuable information about that page (with the role of citations in academic publishing in mind).
Page told his ideas to Hassan, who began writing the code to implement Page’s ideas. The research project was nicknamed “BackRub”, and it was soon joined by Brin, who was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, The two had first met in the summer of 1995, when Page was part of a group of potential new students that Brin had volunteered to give a tour around the campus and nearby San Francisco.
Both Brin and Page were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP’s goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library” and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies. Brin and Page were also part of a computer science research team at Stanford University that received funding from Massive Digital Data Systems (MDDS), a program managed for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA) by large intelligence and military contractors.
Page’s web crawler began exploring the web in March 1996, with Page’s own Stanford home page serving as the only starting point. To convert the backlink data that is gathered for a given web page into a measure of importance, Brin and Page developed the PageRank algorithm.
While analyzing BackRub’s output which, for a given URL, consisted of a list of backlinks ranked by importance, the pair realized that a search engine based on PageRank would produce better results than existing techniques (existing search engines at the time essentially ranked results according to how many times the search term appeared on a page).
Convinced that the pages with the most links to them from other highly relevant Web pages must be the most relevant pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested their thesis as part of their studies and laid the foundation for their search engine.
The first version of Google was released in August 1996 on the Stanford website. It used nearly half of Stanford’s entire network bandwidth. Some Rough Statistics (from August 29, 1996) Total indexable HTML urls: 75.2306 Million Total content downloaded: 207.022 gigabytes, BackRub is written in Java and Python and runs on several Sun Ultras and Intel Pentiums running Linux.
The primary database is kept on a Sun Ultra II with 28GB of disk. Scott Hassan and Alan Steremberg have provided a great deal of very talented implementation help. Sergey Brin has also been very involved and deserves many thanks. Scott Hassan and Alan Steremberg were cited by Page and Brin as being critical to the development of Google.
Rajeev Motwani and Terry Winograd later co-authored with Page and Brin the first paper about the project, describing PageRank and the initial prototype of the Google search engine, published in 1998. Héctor García-Molina and Jeff Ullman were also cited as contributors to the project. PageRank was influenced by a similar page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for RankDex, developed by Robin Li in 1996.
Larry Page’s patent for PageRank filed in 1998 includes a citation to Li’s earlier patent. Li later went on to create the Chinese search engine Baidu in 2000.
Can I hide my real name in Google?
Choose what info to show – Your name and profile picture can be viewed by other people who use Google services where your main Google Account profile is shown, including when you communicate or share content.
- Go to your,
- On the left, click Personal info,
- Under “Choose what others see,” click Go to About me,
- Below a type of info, you can choose who currently sees your info.
- Choose one of the following:
- To make the info private, click Only you,
- To make the info visible to anyone, click Anyone,
Can Google ban you for fake reviews?
3. Fake Reviews Are Against Google’s Policy – Google values what customers say about a product or service. That’s why they show the ratings and reviews in the search results. But this information must be completely accurate and authentic. It’s clearly outlined that buying and posting fake reviews aren’t allowed.
What is anonymous for blind review?
What are the different types of peer review? There are various different types of peer review. Peer review is the independent assessment of your research paper by experts in your field. Its purpose is to evaluate the manuscript’s quality and suitability for publication. Read through this guide to find out what each type means and the pros and cons. Expert tips and guidance on getting published and maximizing the impact of your research. Register now for weekly insights direct to your inbox. In this model, also called ‘single blind peer review’, the reviewers know that you are the author of the article, but you don’t know the identities of the reviewers.
|The reviewer can be totally honest with their thoughts on the paper as they will remain anonymous throughout the process||Providing details of the author may take some of the focus off of the work, when really the reviewer should be focused on the work alone|
|Risk of conscious bias, they might be tempted to give a more critical review to an article written by someone they consider to be a rival|
|Risk of unconscious bias from the reviewer, they may make judgements on the paper based on details of the author without even realizing|
|Some reviewers may use their anonymity to write reviews that are rushed, rude, or unfair, which they might not do if their name was being associated with the comments|
img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’https://rubyradio.fm/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/todowoxywegaenezhozhi.jpg’ alt=’How To Write A Google Review Without Your Name’ /> In this model, also called ‘double blind peer review’, the reviewers don’t know that you are the author of the article. And you don’t know who the reviewers are either. Double-anonymous review is particularly common in the humanities and some social sciences.
- Many researchers prefer double-anonymous review because they believe it will give their paper a fairer chance than single blind review.
- It can avoid the risk of a paper suffering from the unintended bias of reviewers who know the seniority, gender, or nationality of a paper’s author.
- However, even if you’ve the reviewers may not be able to avoid discerning your identity, especially if you work in a very specialized field.
They might have heard you present the same ideas at a conference, or recognize your writing style. if you are submitting it for double-anonymous peer review.
|Less risk of conscious or unconscious bias from either the reviewer, or the author||It’s not possible to guarantee the anonymity of the author. For example, if the reviewer was already familiar with their work or had heard that someone was working on a particular topic|
|Reviewers can feel more protected from criticism of their review||Some reviewers may use their anonymity to write reviews that are rushed, rude, or unfair, which they might not do if their name was being associated with the comments|
There is no one agreed definition of open peer review. In fact, a recent, Typically, it will mean that the reviewers know you are the author and also that their identity will be revealed to you at some point during the review or publication process. Open review may also include publishing the names of the reviewers and even the reviewers’ reports alongside the article.
|Authors might receive more constructive and polite reviewer comments, as the reviewers know that a signed version of their report is going to be published||There are concerns that researchers who are invited to review may be less inclined to do so under an open model, where their name and report will be published|
|Depending on the model, it allows readers of the published article to see more detail of the review process, increasing their trust||There is a possibility that if a reviewer knows an author and doesn’t want to offend them, they give them an overly favorable review|
img class=’aligncenter wp-image-189362 size-full’ src=’https://rubyradio.fm/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/vaecohegenenaelaetanazha.jpg’ alt=’How To Write A Google Review Without Your Name’ /> In these models, your paper may still go through one of the forms of peer review outlined above first. Alternatively, it may be published online almost immediately after some basic checks. Either way, once it is published, there will then be an opportunity for invited reviewers or even readers to add their own comments or reviews.
|Post-publication review allows the opportunity to gather a wider range of perspectives on your paper||Not every paper published in this way is always guaranteed to receive reviews|
|As review doesn’t end when your paper is published, your peers can add comments reflecting new developments in the future||If your article is tackling a controversial topic, it may attract a large number of comments which won’t always be moderated|
|For journals that use only post-publication review, the articles can be published very quickly||There are some concerns about the risks of allowing a paper to be published without any prior review, especially in areas such as medicine|
The process splits peer review into two parts. The first round of peer review takes place after you’ve designed your study but before you’ve collected or analyzed any data. This allows you to get feedback on both the question you’re looking to answer, and the experiment you’ve designed to test it.
|They support negative results (when the results do not meet the hypothesis). So as long as you submitted your 1st stage manuscript and were accepted you can still proceed with the publication of your article||Though the journal will endeavour to use the same reviewer for both parts, it can’t always be guaranteed|
ul> operates formally invited, which is fully open and transparent, and led by the article authors. Reviewers are usually suggested by the authors following certain, Peer review reports are published – alongside the reviewers’ full names and affiliations – as soon as they’re submitted and remain attached to the article if it is indexed with sites such as PubMed and Scopus. Peer review directly determines whether an article will be indexed, via the approval status that reviewers select when reviewing the article.
: What are the different types of peer review?
What name can I call my girlfriend?
Cutesy nicknames are common among couples in relationships, as ridiculous as the names may be. Love does wacky and wonderful things to your brain, and there’s seemingly no end to the pet names people dream up for their girlfriend, wife, or partner. ( FYI, if you’re looking for nicknames for the special guy in your life, head here,) Some guys go the “classic” route with names like “angel,” “darling,” and “sweetheart”; some prefer food-inspired nicknames, like “cookie” and “cupcake”; and some straight-up worship their partners with loving names like “queen,” “goddess,” and “light of my life.” There’s no such thing as a wrong nickname to use for your partner, as long as you’re both into it.
Science shows that using any private pet name—be it “baby” or “schmoopy bloop bloop be doop”—is a sign of a healthy relationship. A widely-cited 1993 study in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships found a positive correlation between relationship satisfaction and married couple’s use of nick names and other silly idioms.
So don’t be embarrassed; try out a cute nickname for the lucky lady in your life—or, if you already have a pet name picked out, mix things up with one of the options below. Here are 121 nicknames to call your girlfriend, wife or partner.
What do guys like to be called?
What Do Guys Like to be Called? 20 of Their Favorite Nicknames
- Men like being complimented on their appearance, as well as their personality.
- Nicknames are a great way to express affection and familiarity.
- “Cutie” or Good-looking” are great nicknames when, while names like “Babe” or “Honey” are better for committed relationships.
- Tell him he’s gorgeous to make him blush. You might think it’s mostly used to describe girls, but plenty of guys are absolutely gorgeous too! It’s an extravagant and knockout way to say you think he’s a ten.
- “You’re drop-dead gorgeous.”
- “Good-looking” is a safe but flirty option for a nickname. It lets him know you think he’s attractive, but it also isn’t too intense. You could even say this to a friend, so just be sure to make it flirty enough that he knows you don’t want to be just friends.
- “What’s new, good-looking?”
- “Cute” isn’t just for baby animals, it’s perfect for guys, too. You can also get creative and mix it up for bonus points: “Cutie,” “Cutie-Pie,” “Cutie-Patootie.” This one is better for new relationships, since it’s light and flirty.
- “What’s up, cutie?”
- “Has anyone ever told you how cute you are?”
- Calling him “Handsome” is a classic way to, It’s playful and flirty, but it could also come across as a fun joke between the two of you, and is great if you’re dating or just interested. This one’s a good go-to.
- “Hey handsome!”
- “How’d you get so handsome?”
- Call him “sugar” to make him feel sweet. Cakes, pies, chocolates–who doesn’t love a delicious treat? Let him know he’s your treat! This is a time-tested pet name that’s still cute no matter how many times you use it.
- “Give me some sugar, Sugar!”
- “Hot Stuff” is just cheesy enough to make him smile. It’s also a flattering nod to his looks. Just like any superficial compliment, though, it can help to follow up by saying something about his personality. Try also commenting on his smarts or how funny he is!
- “How’s it hanging, hot stuff?”
- “Howdy, hot stuff.”
- Use “hunk” to let him know you’re attracted to him. Guys love to on their looks, especially if the compliment is about their physique. Just be sure you’re not overstepping or objectifying him.
- “I can tell you work out, hunk.”
- “You’re such a hunk.”
- Calling him sexy is a good way to make a move. It doesn’t get much clearer than “sexy” –this nickname lets him know you’re crazy about him. But be careful how you use it! This one is best with your partner, not so much with guys you don’t know very well.
- “I can’t believe how sexy you are.”
- “Can’t wait to see you, sexy.”
- Call him “my hero” to really flatter him. Superheroes are handsome, well-built, reliable, and, well, heroic. Let him know he’s your knight in shining armor, and that you’ll be looking for him to save you if you’re ever in a tough spot.
- “Here comes my hero to save the day!”
- Call him “King” or “Prince” to make him feel like royalty. These nicknames are sure to make him feel like he belongs on a throne, and they’ll let him know that you belong right there beside him. If he’s the king, that makes you royalty too, after all!
- “Anything for you, king.”
- “Here comes my prince!”
- Babe or Baby are common go-to pet names. They’re great to drop into casual conversation with your boyfriend, or during a more romantic date. They work in any situation, and are sweet and snappy.
- “Hey baby, where’re we going?”
- “What’s up, babe?”
- “Hubby” is extra cute, and you don’t have to be married to use it. It’s bubbly and sweet, and makes him sound like a big teddy bear, which isn’t a bad thing to be. Use this when talking about your boyfriend to other people, but make sure you’re committed first!
- “That’s my hubby over there. Yeah, the adorable one.”
- “My Love” and “Beloved” are great names for a more romantic situation. These nicknames are full of affection, and are a bit more serious than the cheesier pet names. They’re simple and to-the-point, and sometimes that’s what’s best.
- “I can’t wait to see you tonight, my love.”
- “I’ve been thinking about you all day, beloved.”
“Honey” is a sweet nickname that’s great for a more casual tone. It’s the favorite pet name for many couples, and if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it! The best part is that you can say it anywhere and in front of anyone, without sounding corny.
- “Sweetie” is simple and reliable. Drop it into conversations at dinner, while shopping, or just when you want to get his attention. This familiar nickname is comfortable to use with a long-term partner, and easy to say without even thinking about it.
- “How was your day, sweetie?”
- “Sweetie, come and see this!”
- Use “sweetheart” to be a bit more affectionate. “Sweetheart” calls to mind all sorts of things, like candy and Valentine’s Day. It’s a romantic nickname that’s a little more intense than “sweetie” without being too much.
- “How’s my sweetheart doing?”
- “You’ll always be my sweetheart.”
- Call him “dearest” as a cute call-back. It’s a little dated, sure, but it’s a classic for a reason. It tells him that he’s your favorite, but makes it sound that much more romantic. This one is cute for long-time partners and new boyfriends alike.
- “Dearest, I’m obsessed with you.”
- “Can I have a kiss, dearest?”
- It’s hard to beat “light of my life” when talking about the person you love. It lets them know that they’re everything to you, and that you value them more than anything. It’s best to call committed partners this–don’t just use it on any guy!
- “I’m so happy I found you, light of my life.”
- It doesn’t get much more casual than “dude,” and that’s not a bad thing. Maybe you’re not ready to be romantic, or maybe you just want to get a feel for the guy before you go all-in. “Dude” is an easy nickname for someone you see every day, but to whom you feel awkward just saying their name without any flair. Alternatively, this can be a cute and funny way to address your long-term partner, once you’ve gotten over the first-date phase.
- “Yeah dude, I’d love to hang out!”
- “I love you so much, dude.”
- Guys love to be called by their first and last names. We’re not talking classroom roll-call here. If you get flirty with it, saying his full name can be a striking way to get his attention. This is a good one to try when the two of you are just starting out, but can also be a killer move later on in a relationship.
- “You’ve got the best eyes, Henry Owens.”
- “Max Miller, you’re a sight for sore eyes.”
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Advertisement This article was co-authored by and by wikiHow staff writer,, John Keegan is a dating coach and motivational speaker based in New York City. He runs The Awakened Lifestyle, where he uses his expertise in dating, attraction, and social dynamics to help people find love.
- Co-authors: 3
- Updated: November 7, 2022
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Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 63,613 times. : What Do Guys Like to be Called? 20 of Their Favorite Nicknames
Is your Google username your email?
Yes. The part of your Gmail address before @gmail.com is your Google account username.
What is the difference between nickname and name on Google Account?
If you want a literal definition of nickname, it is another, often shortened, name given to a person or thing instead of their real name. In your Google Account profile, you can set your display name as a combination of your actual and nickname.
Should you use your real name on Gmail?
Do I have to use my real name to set up a Gmail account Your question is split into two parts, and so shall my answer. 😀 Firstly, you don’t necessarily need to put your real name (although it is a requirement by Google). You can just put your nickname and make it look convincing that it is a name, and you should be okay with it.
If you still can’t fix it, I would suggest to ask your question so that it can receive more professional help. : Do I have to use my real name to set up a Gmail account