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How Did The Loyalty Review Board Pose A Threat To Civil Liberties?

How Did The Loyalty Review Board Pose A Threat To Civil Liberties
How did Truman’s Loyalty Review Board pose a threat to civil liberties in postwar America? It investigated government employees and dismissed those who were found to be disloyal. This violates constitutional rights and individuals under investigation were not allowed to see the evidence against them.

What was the purpose of the Loyalty Review Board quizlet?

Loyalty Review Board; Purpose was to investigate government employees and to dismiss those who were found to be disloyal to the U.S. government.

What was the purpose of the loyalty review boards and HUAC?

House Un-American Activities Committee After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union found themselves on opposite sides of a “Cold War,” which pitted the democratic United States against the Communist Soviet Union. As the Cold War intensified, the frenzy over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U.S.

Became known as the Red Scare. HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and rebel activities on the part of private citizens, public employees and organizations suspected of having Communist ties. Citizens suspected of having ties to the communist party would be tried in a court of law.

Also during this time, Senator Joseph McCarthy began a campaign against alleged communists in the U.S. government and other institutions. From 1950-1954 “McCarthyism” described the practice of accusing Federal Government employees of having affiliations with communism and leaking information.

Government employees could be blacklisted (viewed as untrustworthy or someone to avoid) and could lose their jobs. The threat of Communism was a driving force that created a wedge between society and the United States government. During this time period the lines of civil liberties and national security began to blur, and U.S.

citizens felt a sense of uncertainty. Some Americans felt that their personal freedoms were being taken away, while others believed HUAC and McCarthyism were necessary to secure national security. Government officials felt the same types of pressures on the home front.

The President’s News Conference, plus political cartoon, June 16, 1949 J. Parnell Thomas to Harry S. Truman, September 29, 1948 Political cartoon, “It’s okay—We’re hunting Communists,” October 31, 1947 Executive Order 9835 Letter from Jack Moffitt to Norris Paulson, April 11, 1947 Letter from “An American” to the Chair of HUAC regarding Gale Sondergaard, March 1951 Correspondence between J. Parnell Thomas and Harry S. Truman, April 25, 1947 Harry Truman’s Address at the Dedication of the New Washington Headquarters of the American Legion, August 14, 1951 Gallup Vault Poll: Celebrity Witnesses before Congress in 1947 Public Opinion, November 1947 Video, Walt Disney testifies against Communism, 1947 Video, Pete Seeger testimony on being blacklisted in America, 1965

: House Un-American Activities Committee

What connection did the Red Scare have to Truman’s Loyalty Review Program quizlet?

The RS initiated the Loyalty Review Program since many were afraid of Communist subversion from those in satellite nations & past the Iron Curtain.

What was the purpose of the loyalty review boards and HUAC quizlet?

-Its purpose was to investigate government employees and to dismiss those who were disloyal to the US.

What was the impact of the loyalty review program?

Background – The Cold War emphasis on containment is often framed in terms of Truman’s foreign policy decisions: the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine in Europe, the Korean War in Asia. Yet containment took on a life of its own in the United States as many Americans grew more and more concerned about Communism on U.S.

  • Soil, and even more alarmingly, in government agencies.
  • The rise of McCarthyism in the wake of this fear is well-known.
  • Less discussed, perhaps, is the emergence of a Loyalty Program within the federal government.
  • Truman’s Loyalty Program has its origins in World War II, particularly in the Hatch Act (1939), which forbade anyone who “advocated the overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States” to work in government agencies.

After the war, tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union grew, as did suspicion of workers in every government department. Several advisors, including Attorney General Tom Clark, urged Truman to form a loyalty program to safeguard against communist infiltration in the government.

  • Initially, Truman was reluctant to form such a program, fearing it could threaten civil liberties of government workers.
  • However, several factors shaped his decision to institute such a policy.
  • Fear of communism was growing rapidly at home, and in the 1946 midterm election, Republicans gained control of Congress for the first time since 1931.

To examine the issue, in November 1946 Truman created the Temporary Commission on Employee Loyalty, which stated, “there are many conditions called to the Committee’s attention that cannot be remedied by mere changes in techniques Adequate protective measures must be adopted to see that persons of questioned loyalty are not permitted to enter into the federal service.” In March 1947, Truman signed Executive Order 9835, “prescribing procedures for the administration of an employees loyalty program in the executive branch of the government.” The Loyalty Program has been criticized as a weapon of hysteria attacking law-abiding citizens.

  • The Attorney General’s office compiled lists of “subversive” organizations, and prior involvement in protests or labor strikes could be grounds for investigation.
  • As the Cold War intensified, investigations grew more frequent and far-reaching.
  • As noted in Civil Liberties and the Legacy of Harry S.
  • Truman, edited by Richard S.

Kirkendall, “During the loyalty-security program’s peak years from 1947 to 1956, over five million federal workers underwent screening, resulting in an estimated 2,700 dismissals and 12,000 resignations the program exerted its chilling effect on a far larger number of employees than those who were dismissed” (70).

While Truman feared the Program could become a “witch hunt,” he defended it as necessary to preserve American security during a time of great tension. Many Americans agreed with him and applauded his stand against communism and subversion. The historical context of this event is important, for every investigation, every loyalty oath and every questionnaire took place under a backdrop of fear in an uncertain post-war world.

It is common today to look at events like McCarthyism, HUAC and the Loyalty Program as products of hysteria. Yet this hardly was the first time the federal government restricted civil liberties in the name of national security. In 1798, Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts as concerns grew over a looming war with France.

What was the purpose of the loyalty review Board 1947?

Classification 121: Loyalty of Government Employees (Obsolete) This classification was established in 1947 for investigations under Executive Order (EO) 9835 of March 22, 1947. The EO required investigations of loyalty for all federal employees and all future applicants.

The program established a Loyalty Review Board to make final determinations but the Bureau was assigned the task of conducting the initial investigations. The Bureau retained jurisdiction over all civilian agencies, while the military investigated its civilian employees. The Bureau’s instructions from Headquarters to the Field stressed a businesslike approach that recognized “there is a distinction between Liberalism and Communism.” However, in changing instructions the Bureau at different times directed its agents to report not only on criminal activities but also on “loose morals.” Full field investigations were conducted only if the preliminary investigations found derogatory information.

In response to considerable criticism of the loyalty program, Director Hoover argued that the Bureau made no recommendations but only reported the facts to the employing agency. The Bureau insisted that only the agencies and the Loyalty Review Board made decisions on people’s loyalty.

What does loyalty review boards mean in U.S. history?

: a board (as of a government agency) established and authorized to inquire into the loyalty to the government of the U.S. of persons employed or considered for employment by the U.S. government or by international organizations of which the U.S. is a member and to make usually advisory determinations in such cases.

What was the purpose of the loyalty program?

What Is a Loyalty Program? – Loyalty programs, sponsored by retailers and other businesses, offer rewards, discounts, and other special incentives as a way to attract and retain customers. They are designed to encourage repeat business, offering people a reward for store/ brand loyalty (hence the name).

Why was Hollywood targeted by the HUAC?

The Hollywood Ten – The following ten individuals were cited for contempt of Congress and blacklisted after refusing to answer questions about their alleged involvement with the Communist Party:

  • Alvah Bessie, screenwriter
  • Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director
  • Lester Cole, screenwriter
  • Edward Dmytryk, director
  • Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter
  • John Howard Lawson, screenwriter
  • Albert Maltz, screenwriter
  • Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter
  • Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter
  • Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter

In late September 1947, HUAC subpoenaed 79 individuals on a claim that they were subversive and the supposition that they injected Communist propaganda into their films. Although never substantiating this claim, the investigators charged them with contempt of Congress when they refused to answer the questions about their membership in the Screen Writers Guild and Communist Party.

  • The Committee demanded they admit their political beliefs and name names of other Communists.
  • Nineteen of those refused to co-operate, and due to illnesses, scheduling conflicts, and exhaustion from the chaotic hearings, only 10 appeared before the Committee.
  • These men became known as the Hollywood Ten.
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Belonging to the Communist Party did not constitute a crime, and the Committee’s right to investigate these men was questionable in the first place. These men relied on the First Amendment’s right to privacy, freedom of speech, and freedom of thought, but the Committee charged them with contempt of Congress for refusing to answer questions.

Later defendants – except Pete Seeger – tried different strategies. Acknowledging the potential for punishment, the Ten resisted the authority of HUAC. They yelled at the Chairman and treated the Committee with open indignation, emanating negativity and discouraging outside public favor and help. Upon receiving their contempt citations, they believed the Supreme Court would overturn the rulings, which did not turn out to be the case, and as a result, they were convicted of contempt and fined $1,000 each (or, over $10,700 USD in 2016 dollars, when adjusted for inflation), and sentenced to six-months to one-year prison terms.

Martin Redish suggests that, at this time, the First Amendment’s right of free expression in these cases was used to protect the powers of the government accusers instead of the rights of the citizen-victims. After witnessing the well-publicized ineffectiveness of the Ten’s defense strategy, later defendants chose to plead the Fifth Amendment (against self-incrimination), instead.

Public support for the Hollywood Ten wavered, as everyday citizen-observers were never really sure what to make of them. Some of these men later wrote about their experiences as part of the Ten. John Howard Lawson, the Ten’s unofficial leader, wrote a book attacking Hollywood for appeasing HUAC. While mostly criticizing the studios for their weakness, Lawson also defends himself/the Ten and criticizes Edward Dmytryk for being the only one to recant and eventually co-operate with HUAC.

In his 1981 autobiography, Hollywood Red, screenwriter Lester Cole stated that all of the Hollywood Ten had been Communist Party USA members at some point. Other members of the Hollywood Ten, such as Dalton Trumbo and Edward Dmytryk, publicly admitted to being Communists while testifying before the Committee.

What factors helped lead to the Red Scare in the United States?

Sacco & Vanzetti: The Red Scare of 1919–1920 During the Red Scare of 1919-1920, many in the United States feared recent immigrants and dissidents, particularly those who embraced communist, socialist, or anarchist ideology. The causes of the Red Scare included:

How Did The Loyalty Review Board Pose A Threat To Civil Liberties World War I, which led many to embrace strong nationalistic and anti-immigrant sympathies; The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, which led many to fear that immigrants, particularly from Russia, southern Europe, and eastern Europe, intended to overthrow the United States government; The end of World War I, which caused production needs to decline and unemployment to rise. Many workers joined labor unions. Labor strikes, including the Boston Police Strike in September 1919, contributed to fears that radicals intended to spark a revolution; Self-proclaimed anarchists’ mailing bombs to prominent Americans, including United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and United States Supreme Court Associate Justice (and former Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice) Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

Enraged by the bombings, the United States government responded by raiding the headquarters of radical organizations and arresting thousands of suspected radicals. Several thousand who were aliens were deported. The largest raids occurred on January 2, 1920 when over 4000 suspected radicals were seized nationwide.

Over 800 were arrested in New England from locations that included Boston, Brockton, Chelsea, Fitchburg, Lawrence, and Lynn. On April 29, 1920, several days before the arrests of Sacco and Vanzetti, Attorney General Palmer warned the nation that the Department of Justice had uncovered plots against the lives of over twenty federal and state officials as part of planned May Day (May 1st) celebrations.

May Day, also known as International Workers’ Day, was celebrated by many socialists, communists, anarchists, and unionists. The failure of these plots to materialize, coupled with increased criticism of the Palmer Raids, brought these raids to an end. How Did The Loyalty Review Board Pose A Threat To Civil Liberties Massachusetts prisoners seized during government raids awaiting transport to Deer Island on January 4, 1920 How Did The Loyalty Review Board Pose A Threat To Civil Liberties November 1919 photo of Boston police with seized radical literature : Sacco & Vanzetti: The Red Scare of 1919–1920

What was the point of the Red Scare?

A Red Scare is the promotion of a widespread fear of a potential rise of communism, anarchism or other leftist ideologies by a society or state.

What was the official purpose of President Truman’s loyalty review program quizlet?

President Truman’s loyalty review program calmed public fears that Communists had infiltrated the government.

What is a red threat?

Home > News & Policies > March 2002 Printer-Friendly Version Email This Page

For Immediate Release Office of the Press Secretary Homeland Security Presidential Directive-3 Purpose The Nation requires a Homeland Security Advisory System to provide a comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people.

  • Such a system would provide warnings in the form of a set of graduated “Threat Conditions” that would increase as the risk of the threat increases.
  • At each Threat Condition, Federal departments and agencies would implement a corresponding set of “Protective Measures” to further reduce vulnerability or increase response capability during a period of heightened alert.

This system is intended to create a common vocabulary, context, and structure for an ongoing national discussion about the nature of the threats that confront the homeland and the appropriate measures that should be taken in response. It seeks to inform and facilitate decisions appropriate to different levels of government and to private citizens at home and at work. The Homeland Security Advisory System shall be binding on the executive branch and suggested, although voluntary, to other levels of government and the private sector. There are five Threat Conditions, each identified by a description and corresponding color.

  1. From lowest to highest, the levels and colors are: Low = Green; Guarded = Blue; Elevated = Yellow; High = Orange; Severe = Red.
  2. The higher the Threat Condition, the greater the risk of a terrorist attack.
  3. Risk includes both the probability of an attack occurring and its potential gravity.
  4. Threat Conditions shall be assigned by the Attorney General in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.

Except in exigent circumstances, the Attorney General shall seek the views of the appropriate Homeland Security Principals or their subordinates, and other parties as appropriate, on the Threat Condition to be assigned. Threat Conditions may be assigned for the entire Nation, or they may be set for a particular geographic area or industrial sector.

Assigned Threat Conditions shall be reviewed at regular intervals to determine whether adjustments are warranted. For facilities, personnel, and operations inside the territorial United States, all Federal departments, agencies, and offices other than military facilities shall conform their existing threat advisory systems to this system and henceforth administer their systems consistent with the determination of the Attorney General with regard to the Threat Condition in effect.

The assignment of a Threat Condition shall prompt the implementation of an appropriate set of Protective Measures. Protective Measures are the specific steps an organization shall take to reduce its vulnerability or increase its ability to respond during a period of heightened alert.

  • The authority to craft and implement Protective Measures rests with the Federal departments and agencies.
  • It is recognized that departments and agencies may have several preplanned sets of responses to a particular Threat Condition to facilitate a rapid, appropriate, and tailored response.
  • Department and agency heads are respon-sible for developing their own Protective Measures and other antiterrorism or self-protection and continuity plans, and resourcing, rehearsing, documenting, and maintaining these plans.

Likewise, they retain the authority to respond, as necessary, to risks, threats, incidents, or events at facilities within the specific jurisdiction of their department or agency, and, as authorized by law, to direct agencies and industries to implement their own Protective Measures.

  1. They shall continue to be responsible for taking all appropriate proactive steps to reduce the vulnerability of their personnel and facilities to terrorist attack.
  2. Federal department and agency heads shall submit an annual written report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, describing the steps they have taken to develop and implement appropriate Protective Measures for each Threat Condition.
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Governors, mayors, and the leaders of other organizations are encouraged to conduct a similar review of their organizations= Protective Measures. The decision whether to publicly announce Threat Conditions shall be made on a case-by-case basis by the Attorney General in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.

  1. Every effort shall be made to share as much information regarding the threat as possible, consistent with the safety of the Nation.
  2. The Attorney General shall ensure, consistent with the safety of the Nation, that State and local government officials and law enforcement authorities are provided the most relevant and timely information.

The Attorney General shall be responsible for identifying any other information developed in the threat assessment process that would be useful to State and local officials and others and conveying it to them as permitted consistent with the constraints of classification.

  • The Attorney General shall establish a process and a system for conveying relevant information to Federal, State, and local government officials, law enforcement authorities, and the private sector expeditiously.
  • The Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General shall ensure that a continuous and timely flow of integrated threat assessments and reports is provided to the President, the Vice President, Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs.

Whenever possible and practicable, these integrated threat assessments and reports shall be reviewed and commented upon by the wider interagency community. A decision on which Threat Condition to assign shall integrate a variety of considerations. This integration will rely on qualitative assessment, not quantitative calculation.

  • Higher Threat Conditions indicate greater risk of a terrorist act, with risk including both probability and gravity.
  • Despite best efforts, there can be no guarantee that, at any given Threat Condition, a terrorist attack will not occur.
  • An initial and important factor is the quality of the threat information itself.

The evaluation of this threat information shall include, but not be limited to, the following factors:

To what degree is the threat information credible? To what degree is the threat information corroborated? To what degree is the threat specific and/or imminent? How grave are the potential consequences of the threat?

Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures The world has changed since September 11, 2001. We remain a Nation at risk to terrorist attacks and will remain at risk for the foreseeable future. At all Threat Conditions, we must remain vigilant, prepared, and ready to deter terrorist attacks.

Low Condition (Green), This condition is declared when there is a low risk of terrorist attacks. Federal departments and agencies should consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures they develop and implement:

Refining and exercising as appropriate preplanned Protective Measures; Ensuring personnel receive proper training on the Homeland Security Advisory System and specific preplanned department or agency Protective Measures; and Institutionalizing a process to assure that all facilities and regulated sectors are regularly assessed for vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks, and all reasonable measures are taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities.

Guarded Condition (Blue), This condition is declared when there is a general risk of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous Threat Condition, Federal departments and agencies should consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures that they will develop and implement:

Checking communications with designated emergency response or command locations; Reviewing and updating emergency response procedures; and Providing the public with any information that would strengthen its ability to act appropriately.

Elevated Condition (Yellow), An Elevated Condition is declared when there is a significant risk of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous Threat Conditions, Federal departments and agencies should consider the following general measures in addition to the Protective Measures that they will develop and implement:

Increasing surveillance of critical locations; Coordinating emergency plans as appropriate with nearby jurisdictions; Assessing whether the precise characteristics of the threat require the further refinement of preplanned Protective Measures; and Implementing, as appropriate, contingency and emergency response plans.

High Condition (Orange), A High Condition is declared when there is a high risk of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous Threat Conditions, Federal departments and agencies should consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures that they will develop and implement:

Coordinating necessary security efforts with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies or any National Guard or other appropriate armed forces organizations; Taking additional precautions at public events and possibly considering alternative venues or even cancellation; Preparing to execute contingency procedures, such as moving to an alternate site or dispersing their workforce; and Restricting threatened facility access to essential personnel only.

Severe Condition (Red), A Severe Condition reflects a severe risk of terrorist attacks. Under most circumstances, the Protective Measures for a Severe Condition are not intended to be sustained for substantial periods of time. In addition to the Protective Measures in the previous Threat Conditions, Federal departments and agencies also should consider the following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures that they will develop and implement:

Increasing or redirecting personnel to address critical emergency needs; Assigning emergency response personnel and pre-positioning and mobilizing specially trained teams or resources; Monitoring, redirecting, or constraining transportation systems; and Closing public and government facilities.

Comment and Review Periods The Attorney General, in consultation and coordination with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, shall, for 45 days from the date of this directive, seek the views of government officials at all levels and of public interest groups and the private sector on the proposed Homeland Security Advisory System.

What was the ultimate fear during the Red Scare quizlet?

The fear that communists —both outside and inside the United States—were working to destroy American life created a reaction known as the Red Scare.

Why were Americans worried about the security of the United States quizlet?

Why were Americans worried about security of the United States? The Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and the Communist takeover of China shocked the American public, fueling a fear that communism would spread around the world.

What are the four effects of loyalty programs?

Key Takeaway – Customer loyalty is both behavioral and attitudinal. Habitual purchases are a form of behavioral loyalty. Cause-related marketing can foster attitudinal loyalty among a company’s community of customers, as can loyalty programs. Loyalty programs can have four positive effects: They can increase the longevity, or lifetime value, of customers; block competitors’ marketing efforts; encourage customers to buy related offerings; and accelerate their purchases.

What are the two aims of the loyalty program?

Maintain, gain, and win back customers The primary objective of a loyalty program is to retain existing customers, and the programs are effective for both the customer and the business. Customers like to feel valued and important.

Who created loyalty boards?

Loyalty boards were initiated by President Harry S. Truman on March 21, 1947. His Executive Order 9835 established loyalty boards in an attempt to thwart communism and to keep communist sympathizers from obtaining employment in the U.S. federal government.

Who introduced loyalty program?

20th Century In 1929, Betty Crocker was the first to introduce the box-top as a form of loyalty program cards or tokens. The coupons were cut-outs that were printed on the boxes or the packaging of the products. The customer would cut out these coupons, collect them, and then later redeem them for rewards.

What was the loyalty review Board in the Cold War?

Loyalty Review Program: Executive Order 9835 Harry S Truman was the 33rd American President who served in office from April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953. One of the important events during his presidency was the establishment of the Loyalty Review Program under Executive Order 9835, Loyalty Review Program Facts for kids The following fact sheet contains interesting information, history and facts on Loyalty Review Program for kids. Loyalty Review Program Facts for kids Loyalty Review Program Facts – 1: No sooner had WW2 (1939 – 1945) ended the threat of Nazism and Fascism another threat to the stability of the West emerged with the spread of Communism, Loyalty Review Program Facts – 2: The First Red Scare (1917 – 1920) had followed on the heels of WW1 sparking the fear and suspicion that anarchists, socialists and communists. During the first Red Scare the “Reds” or “Bolshies”, were believed to be conspiring to start a workers revolution in the USA leading to widespread strikes and terrorist attacks. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 3: The Second Red Scare began on September 5, 1945 with the defection of Igor Gouzenko who had worked as a cipher clerk in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, Canada. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 4: The Soviet defector, Igor Gouzenko, brought with him 109 secret papers and documents revealing that the Soviet Union was making a massive effort to steal nuclear secrets by planting ‘sleeper agents’ in Canadian and American government agencies. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 5: The Gouzenko Affair implied that that USSR spies had infiltrated the US government to obtain information about the Atomic Bomb, Loyalty Review Program Facts – 6: The Gouzenko Affair was one of the many catalysts that initiated the Cold War and Americans began to harbor strong suspicions that Communists were secretly working to subvert the government of the United States and weaken American society. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 7: Concerns about subversion and infiltration had been previously addressed in the Hatch Act of 1939 that had asserted that “membership in any organization advocating the overthrow of the Constitutional form of Government in the United States was made grounds for removal.” In 1941, Congress had appropriated $100,000 to the FBI for a loyalty examination of federal employees. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 8: The Cold War between the Soviet Union and America intensified as did the Cold War Arms Race with fears about nuclear weapons and homeland security leading to the second Red Scare. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 9: The Republican Party, which had gained control of both houses of Congress in election of 1946, worked with the FBI, the Catholic Church and businesses to provoke public fear and suspicion of Communism and its anti-capitalist economic system. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 10: On November 25, 1946 President Truman issued Executive Order 9806 establishing the President’s Temporary Commission on Employee Loyalty which required the Commission to make a report of its findings. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 11: The commission presented its report to President Truman on February 20, 1947 stating that the security of the government demanded “continuous screening, scrutiny and surveillance of present and prospective government employees”. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 12: The commission report recommended the establishment of a Loyalty Review Board and the appointment of loyalty boards within government agencies to ascertain whether “reasonable grounds” for finding of disloyalty existed. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 13: On March 27, 1947 President Truman made a speech to Congress which became known as the Truman Doctrine outlining his pledge to prevent the spread of communism Loyalty Review Program Facts – 14: Ten days after the Truman Doctrine Speech, on March 21, 1947, the president issued Executive Order 9835 that established the Loyalty Review Program. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 15: The Loyalty Review Program, Executive Order 9835, required all new government employees to be investigated before being hired and the screening of present employees in order to root out Communist influence in the U.S. federal government., Continued. Loyalty Review Program Facts for kids Loyalty Review Program Facts for kids Loyalty Review Program Facts – 16: Each federal department and agency was required to set up a loyalty board charged with monitoring the affiliations and activities of its workers. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 17: Executive Order 9835 resulted in all federal employees to have their fingerprints taken and complete a questionnaire regarding their political affiliations and associations. These were forwarded on to the FBI for a file check. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 18: Various associations were deemed to be grounds for dismissal such as membership in, affiliation with, or sympathetic association with any organization designated by the Attorney-General as Communist, Fascist, Totalitarian or subversive. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 19: Various activities were deemed to be grounds for dismissal such as espionage, sabotage, treason or sedition. Any activities attempting to alter the Constitutional form of the US Government or acting to serve the interests of a foreign government in preference to the interests of the United States. The intentional, unauthorized disclosure of confidential papers or documents under circumstances indicating disloyalty Loyalty Review Program Facts – 20: Loyalty Review Program, Executive Order 9835, established a wide area for the departmental loyalty boards, with questionnaires and accompanying fingerprints, to conduct loyalty screenings of federal employees and job applicants. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 21: Executive Order 9835 allowed the FBI to run initial name checks on federal employees and authorize further field investigations if the initial inquiry uncovered information that cast someone in a suspicious or negative light. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 22: A person could come under suspicion due to anonymous informants and was subject to intensive scrutiny by the FBI for belonging to certain groups, traveling overseas, reading certain books or even watching foreign films. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 23: If there was an adverse finding, the FBI report was sent to the appropriate Agency Loyalty Board and a letter of charges was sent to the employee. The employee was given the right of an administrative hearing and any adverse findings were subject to appeal. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 24: There were three appeals during which time the employee could present evidence and be represented by a legal counsel. The third and final appeal was made to the central Loyalty Review Board that included lawyers, professors and members of the public. The decision of the Board was final. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 25: Between 1948 and 1958, the FBI ran initial reviews of 4.5 million federal government employees as well as screening new applicants for government positions. At least 5,000 federal employees offered voluntary resignations in light of the investigations. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 26: The government-run investigations to identify communists and drive them out of positions of influence were referred to as the “Communist Witch Hunts” Loyalty Review Program Facts – 27: President Truman had hoped that the Loyalty Review Program would calm public fears and suspicions. Executive Order 9835 had completely the opposite effect and confirmed the public’s fears that Communists had infiltrated the federal government. This increased the Red Scare and added fuel to the fear of Communism that was sweeping the nation during the Cold War. Loyalty Review Program Facts – 28: Executive Order 9835 began the “Communist Witch Hunts” which saw the rise in power and prominence of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, the HUAC (House of Un-American Activities Committee), Senator Joseph McCarthy and McCarthyism, Loyalty Review Program Facts – 29: The impact and actions of the Loyalty Review Program and the loyalty boards raised many to question its violation of civil rights and civil liberties. Objections were regarding the lack of protection resulting from the departmental loyalty board procedures and was dismantled by a 1953 Executive Order Loyalty Review Program Facts for kids Loyalty Review Program – President Harry Truman Video The article on the Loyalty Review Program provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following Harry Truman video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 33rd American President whose presidency spanned from April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953. Loyalty Review Program ● Interesting Facts about Loyalty Review Program for kids and schools ● Summary and Definition of the Loyalty Review Program in US history ● Loyalty Review Program Facts with important dates and key events ● Loyalty Review Program Facts with important dates and key events ● Fast, fun, interesting facts about Loyalty Review Program ● Foreign & Domestic policy of President Truman ● Loyalty Review Program facts for schools, homework, kids and children
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What is a loyalty review board in US history?

: a board (as of a government agency) established and authorized to inquire into the loyalty to the government of the U.S. of persons employed or considered for employment by the U.S. government or by international organizations of which the U.S. is a member and to make usually advisory determinations in such cases.

What was the official purpose of President Truman’s loyalty review program quizlet?

President Truman’s loyalty review program calmed public fears that Communists had infiltrated the government.

Why did Truman establish the loyalty review Board quizlet?

The Loyalty review board was set up by President Truman to investigate government employees and make sure anyone found to be disloyal to the US government was fired from their job.